澳门赌场大全官网:风起青苹之末 英雄不问出处
——《三国演义》英译品读 (三)

 
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作者:王晓辉

《三国演义》的前几章中,大英雄们的事业刚刚起步,官职都很低。刘备一介白丁,自费招兵买马,参与镇压黄巾起义,虽然立了功,但因为没有背景,只得到了定州中山府安喜县尉一个低微的官职,又因为张飞动手打了朝廷派出的巡视员,连这个小官也没保住。后来,经公孙瓒的举荐,才当上了平原县令。据《三国志·蜀书·先主传》记载,打人的不是张飞,而是刘备本人“直入缚督邮,杖二百,解绶系其颈着马枊,弃官亡命”。《三国演义》的作者罗贯中为了塑造刘备仁义的形象,将这一节改成了“张翼德怒鞭督邮”,打人的“锅”就由张飞背了。

【配图:彭星鑫】

东汉末年,贵族门阀势力强大,加之宦官当权,朝纲涣散,如果没有背景,再有才能,也很难出人头地。刘备尚且如此,关羽和张飞就更不用说了,只能在刘备身边充当马弓手和步弓手。

秦汉时的县令是地方首席行政长官,县尉则是县令的佐官,负责治安、法制,相当于今天的公安局长。县令的英文是Magistrate,县尉可以译成Judicial Officer。马弓手和步弓手实际上就是普通士兵,但县衙门里的弓手还不是真正意义上的弓箭手,而是维持治安的基层工作人员,相当于今天的派出所的“片儿警”。罗慕士教授采用了字面意义的翻译方法,将“马弓手”和“步弓手”分别译为“mounted archer”和“standing archer”。

关羽和张飞虽然只是弓手,但刚一出道,就是大将风范。北平太守公孙瓒第一次见到关张二人,即为其仪表和气势所吸引,当听刘备介绍关羽为马弓手、张飞为步弓手时,公孙瓒叹道:“如此可谓埋没英雄(A waste of talent)!”机缘巧合,没过几天,身为马弓手的关羽就上演了一出精彩的戏码——“温酒斩华雄”。

《三国演义》第五回,“发矫诏诸镇应曹公,破关兵三英战吕布”。十八路诸侯讨伐董卓,却被董卓部将华雄连斩数将。正在大家不知所措的时候,阶下一人叫道:“小将愿往斩华雄头,献于帐下!”众视之,见其人身长九尺,髯长二尺,丹凤眼,卧蚕眉,面如重枣,声如巨钟,立于帐前。绍问何人。公孙瓒曰:“此刘玄德之弟关羽也。”绍问现居何职。瓒曰:“跟随刘玄德充马弓手。”帐上袁术大喝曰:“汝欺吾众诸侯无大将耶?量一弓手,安敢乱言!与我打出!”曹操急止之曰:“公路息怒。此人既出大言,必有勇略;试教出马,如其不胜,责之未迟。”袁绍曰:“使一弓手出战,必被华雄所笑。”操曰:“此人仪表不俗,华雄安知他是弓手?”关公曰:“如不胜,请斩某头。”操教酾热酒一杯,与关公饮了上马。关公曰:“酒且斟下,某去便来。”出帐提刀,飞身上马。众诸侯听得关外鼓声大振,喊声大举,如天摧地塌,岳撼山崩,众皆失惊。正欲探听,鸾铃响处,马到中军,云长提华雄之头,掷于地上。其酒尚温。

罗贯中不愧是讲故事的高手。三国故事能够家喻户晓,关羽、张飞、赵云、诸葛亮的形象能够深入人心,与罗贯中高超的艺术手法有着直接的关系。原文不到250个汉字,却容纳了关羽、曹操、公孙瓒、袁绍、袁术五个人的对话和惊心动魄的搏杀,关公的豪迈英武、曹操的慧眼识人、袁术的狭隘暴躁和袁绍的死要面子都展现得淋漓尽致。整段文字中没有一个字讲关羽武艺如何高强,打斗如何激烈,只用天摧地塌、岳撼山崩的鼓声和呐喊烘托气氛;整个战斗过程都是虚写,只有两样东西写得实实在在——地上的人头和桌上的热酒!

【配图:彭星鑫】

我们再来看看罗慕士的译文:

At that, a voice from the back boomed, "I offer to present Hua Xiong's head to you personally."

The assembled lords turned to the speaker, a man over nine spans, with a great beard flowing from rich ruddy cheeks. His eyes were like those of the crimson-faced phoenix, his voice like a tolling bell. He fixed his eyes directly on the audience. "Who is this man?" demanded Shao. "Guan Yu, sworn brother of Xuande," answered Gongsun Zan. "His position?" asked Shao. "Mounted archer under Xuande," was the reply. At that, the war-ruler's brother, Yuan Shu, burst out, "Are you trying to insult us? A mere archer! Have we no more commanders? What nonsense! Get him out of here!" But Cao Cao checked Yuan Shu: "Pray, hold your temper. This man has made his boast. He can't be a coward. Now let him make it good. You'll have plenty of time to condemn him if he fails." "But to send out an archer!" Yuan Shao said. "Hua Xiong will laugh in his sleeve!" "He doesn't look like an ordinary soldier," Cao Cao replied. "How is Hua Xiong going to know?" Finally, Lord Guan spoke: "If I fail, my head is yours."

Cao Cao had a draft of wine heated for Lord Guan before he mounted. "Pour it," said the warrior," and set it aside for me. I'll be back shortly." He leaped to his horse, gripped his weapon, and was gone. The assembly of lords heard the rolling of drums and the clamor of voices outside the pass, and it seemed as if the heavens would split open and the earth buckle, as if the hills were shaking and the mountains moving. The terror-struck assembly was about to make inquiry when the jingling of bridle bells announced Lord Guan's return. He entered the tent and tossed Hua Xiong's head, freshly severed, on the ground. His wine was still warm.

罗慕士的翻译同样精彩。译文的字数与原文大致相当,甚至还要少上十几二十个字。对话部分简单紧凑,突出了阵前的紧张气氛。最值得我们体味的是结尾的部分的翻译:“众皆失惊。正欲探听,鸾铃响处,马到中军,云长提华雄之头,掷于地上。”罗慕士将“鸾铃响处,马到中军”译成了一个状语从句,(The terror-struck assembly was about to make inquiry) when the jingling of bridle bells announced Lord Guan's return,处理得丝丝入扣,平滑自然。“云长提华雄之头,掷于地上”,罗慕士译为“He entered the tent and tossed Hua Xiong's head, freshly severed, on the ground.”译文中加上了“freshly severed”,意思是“新切下来的”。又不是推销生鱼刺身,为什么要强调freshly severed?我有些疑惑。如果是为了表示关公斩华雄干净利落,前面有关公“出帐提刀,飞身上马”,后面有“其酒尚温”,已经说得非常清楚了。也许译者是为了让译文更加生动吧?

十八路诸侯讨伐董卓以失败告终,原因很简单,乌合之众,各怀异心。曹操曾写过一首五言古体诗《蒿里行》,明确道出了讨伐失败的原因:“军合力不齐,踌躇而雁行。势利使人争,嗣还自相戕。”诸侯用兵,让本就处在动荡之中的东汉政权分崩离析,但接下来的乱世,也为刘备、曹操、孙权以及关羽、张飞、诸葛亮、周瑜这些英雄豪杰提供了施展才干的舞台。

“温酒斩华雄”和随后的“三英战吕布”,确立了刘关张兄弟在诸侯中的地位。经过多年征战,刘备取得了荆州、益州和汉中,于221年建立蜀汉,成为一代帝王。关羽温酒斩华雄之后,又诛杀颜良、文丑,过五关斩六将,取长沙,水淹七军,一路战功赫赫。当年的马弓手,位列为五虎大将(关、张、赵、马、黄)之首,逐渐成了“战神”。

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